Vertical agreements are agreements between two or more parties that, within the meaning of this agreement, operate at different levels of the production, supply and distribution chain. For example, between a manufacturer and a supplier or between a supplier and a distributor. Note: Horizontal agreements are generally considered to be a breach of cartel and abuse of dominance rules. The main and most frequent types of anti-competitive horizontal agreements are price fixing, supply manipulation, market allocation/distribution and refusal of transactions (group boycott). These horizontal agreements generally have the form of an agreement, which is explained in a separate subcategory. It is essential that the parties focus on the potential anti-competitive effects of a horizontal agreement and ensure that legal and real cooperation agreements between two or more companies do not move to Chapter I or Article 101 territory. EU competition law provides for several category exemptions that exclude certain regimes from the Article 101 ban. These category exemptions also apply to agreements that may be covered by the Chapter I prohibition. the agreement between the actual definition or definition of potential competitors, i.e. companies operating at the same level of the production or distribution chain. B and which include research and development, production, purchasing or marketing. Horizontal agreements can restrict competition, particularly when they involve price fixing or market-sharing measures, or when the definition of market economy services resulting from horizontal cooperation has negative market effects in terms of price, production, innovation or product diversity and quality.

On the other hand, horizontal cooperation can be a way to share risks, reduce costs, pool know-how and accelerate innovation. For small and medium-sized enterprises in particular, cooperation can be an important means of adapting to the changing market. The European Commission has published guidelines on vertical restrictions to determine when an agreement should be exempt from the bans in Chapter I or Article 101. In general, vertical restrictions are less anti-competitive than horizontal restrictions. Horizontal agreements are agreements between two or more parties operating at the same level of the production, supply and distribution chain, . B between two suppliers or two retailers.